yīn .... ér ...
means that something give rise to something else. This form is very similar to “因为….所以 yīn wèi …. suŏ yĭ ”structure, but use more often in written Chinese.
tā yīn ăi xiăo ér bù néng cān jūn 。
Because he is short, so he can’t join the army.
tā yīn chŏu lòu ér chí chí wèi jià 。
She is ugly, thus she couldn’t get marry for such a long time.
meaning to tell someone to do something like a command, often used in spoken situation.
mŭ qīn jiào wŏ qù shàng xué 。
Mother told me to go to school.
lăo shī jiào wŏ men zuò zuò yè 。
The teacher told us to do homework.
jĭn guăn .... kĕ shì
meaning “although”, but has stronger meaning that “虽然…但是 suī rán … dàn shì”.
jĭn guăn tā bú shì gè fù rén ， kĕ shì tā hĕn xĭ huān gĕi qióng rén men măi chī de 。
Although he is not a rich man, he likes buying food for poor people.
jĭn guăn tā de zhàng fu fēi cháng ài tā ， kĕ shì hái shì lí kāi le tā 。
Although her husband loved her very much, he still left her.
In English, the words "that" and "so" are often used to increase the extent of an adjective (ex. "He is so tall" or "this food is so good"). In Chinese, 那么 (nàme) serves the same function.
tā de shēng yīn shì nà me hóng liàng 。
His voice was so resonant.
tā de yī fu shì nà me huá lì 。
His clothes are so gorgeous.
means 'nearly', 'almost' or 'practically', and is used to emphasize that someone or something 'almost' meets a certain standard or is close to doing something.
zhè lĭ de rén jī hū dōu rèn shi wáng lăo shī 。
Almost all the people here know Teacher Wang.
zhè ge xià tiān jī hū méi yŏu xià yŭ 。
There is almost no rain in this summer.
is from classical Chinese, means “very” . “甚” is very formal, thus very rarely used in modern spoken Chinese now.
zhè wū zi shèn shì lăo jiù 。
This house is very old.
zhè fú huà shèn shì hăo kàn 。
This painting is very nice.
is a conjunction word, means “whereupon” . It also mostly used in a formal situation.
tā gĕi le wŏ yí gè miàn bāo ， yú shì wŏ jiù chī le qǐ lái 。
She gave me a loaf of bread, thereupon I ate it.
jiā lĭ tíng diàn le ， yú shì wŏ zhĭ néng shuì jiào 。
There is power cut at home, thereupon I can only go to sleep.
In China people are respect masters and whom very skilled. In China if someone wants to learn something from somebody need to apprentice“拜师 bài shī ” first. It contains very close relationship between them.